Coeliac disease is an autoimmune disease triggered by gluten intake, which causes inflammation and damages the lining (or villi) of the small intestine. This damage can lead to malabsorption of important nutrients. Symptoms can include abdominal bloating and pain, diarrhoea, constipation, vomiting, etc. Some people may have no symptoms at all; however, they can still have intestinal damage, and the failure to absorb nutrients can lead to other problems such anaemia, fatigue, osteoporosis, infertility, etc. In children the disease can lead to slowed growth or growth failure.
Coeliac disease is diagnosed via a blood test and a confirmatory biopsy. The only currently available therapy is a life-long gluten-free diet.